It's a fact of modern life that archiving data is essential to prevent a data disaster. Still, something like one-third of computers are never backed up, according to 2,257 respondents in a recent Backblaze poll carried out by Harris Interactive. The survey came to the dismal conclusion that a scant 7% of users practice safe computing by archiving their systems on a daily (or nightly) basis.
"It's pitiful how few people protect their key data," says Dave Simpson, senior analyst at the market analysis firm 451 Group. "Once it's gone, it's gone."
In place of the traditional technique of storing backups on an external hard drive, an increasingly popular remedy is to use an online backup service that saves the data on servers in the cloud. You don't need any extra hardware and once it's been set up, the system can automatically do the deed when the computer is idle.
"Online backup is a real alternative to local backups," adds Simpson. "It is a popular option to storing backups on a hard drive."
In the two years since we last looked at this area, a lot has changed. To begin with, there are now nearly four dozen companies selling online backup services. They have more automatic features; and, besides restoring files to the host computer, many (although not all) of the services now allow you to retrieve the stored files with a smartphone or tablet or to email them to a friend or colleague.
But while saving your files to the cloud is convenient and a good way to automate your backups, it has its disadvantages. First, the initial backup can be painfully slow, taking as much as several days, depending on the amount of data and the speed of your Internet connection. The good news is that only the first backup is this slow. After that, updates with new data take 10 or 15 minutes, on average.
Equally frustrating is that many online storage services only back up your personal files -- those you create -- and not those that the system requires to boot up, for example. This means that you're only partially protected.
With several dozen services out there, by far the hardest part is deciding which online backup service to use. I signed up for five of the most well-known online backup services: Backblaze, Carbonite, Crashplan, Mozy and Norton Online Backup. I tested them by backing up a desktop PC with Windows 7 Professional (some of these also work with Macs as well).
While all of the tested services do the same basic task -- saving your files to the cloud -- they exhibit a variety of features and pricing options that make it relatively easy to choose among them, depending on what your needs are.
To firefighters, a Backblaze is a fire that has been deliberately set to protect a forest by depriving the blaze of fuel. Computer users should think of Backblaze as a way to wall off their key files from all sorts of disasters.
The heart of the application is Backblaze's Control Panel, which can be started from a Task Tray icon. The interface puts key information up front, showing when the last backup was made and what files are waiting to be sent. There are buttons for backing up now, restoring data and changing the software's settings.
Backblaze offers unlimited storage capacity, but the service limits what types of files can be archived. Unlike the other services reviewed here, Backblaze specifically excludes a whole series of file types. By default, the service saves all user files such as music, photos and emails, but ignores system, program and Windows files, although you can put some file types back into the backup mix, such as Windows or program files.
You can set Backblaze backups to be continuous (where it's backing up to the cloud whenever your files are saved or changed), performed on a schedule or done on demand. Although the service can back up the contents of an external hard drive, Backblaze doesn't include the ability to back up the entire system to an external hard drive as three of the other services reviewed here can.
Unlike Mozy and Carbonite, Backblaze doesn't put a small colored dot next to file icons to mark files that have already been backed up or are ready to be sent. Archived files are available for recovery for up to a month after they've been deleted -- a disappointingly short time limit compared to CrashPlan's never-delete policy. And there is no way to share your files.
Another negative is that Backblaze colocates its servers at a single data center in the U.S. where the service keeps redundant copies of all backups, thereby placing all of your backup eggs in one basket.
On the positive side, Backblaze has an unusual security system that uses a 2,048-bit RSA Public/Private encryption key to secure a 128-bit key that encrypts the actual files. It's the most airtight security of the five applications reviewed here.
Other nice features include an upload speedometer that shows how fast data moved during the last backup and a tool that helps you find a lost or stolen computer by notifying the user of its location if it is logged on to the Internet (although Backblaze can't disable the computer remotely).
In tests using Backblaze's default settings, the service's archived 978MB of data in 1 hour, 42 minutes and 32 seconds. (Note: Because each application's default settings differed, the amount of data each archived at this point differed widely.)
A 25MB incremental backup took 4 minutes and 31 seconds, roughly halfway between CrashPlan's 1 minute and 3 seconds and Norton's 7 minutes and 23 seconds.
Searching for a lost file took Backblaze 2.1 seconds, about the same time as the others. I was able to resurrect the file in a quick 25.3 seconds, the fastest of the bunch.
Rather than restoring files online, Backblaze will send a hard drive or a set of DVDs containing your backups for $189 or $99. This goes beyond Carbonite's Home Premium offer to send you a data-filled hard drive.
Backblaze has a two-week free trial. The service costs a reasonable $50 a year for unlimited storage, but extra computers cost $5 each to back up, something that Norton doesn't charge for. Backblaze offers client software for PCs and Macs, but not Linux computers, and unlike the others, the service doesn't have any companion smartphone apps.
All told, Backblaze can prevent a data disaster by protecting your most precious digital possessions, but it too severely limits what can be backed up.
Carbonite's fifth-generation backup software was released last November, yet it lacks some of the key features that its competitors provide.
Carbonite offers several different services. The basic Carbonite Home service ($59/year) offers unlimited backup for both Windows and Mac systems. The HomePlus service ($99/year) adds external hard drive backup along with the ability to create mirror images, while the HomePremier service ($149/year) adds a courier-recovery service where a copy of your backup will be shipped to you.
HomePlus and HomePremier are for Windows users only. A separate service, Carbonite Business, offers storage at higher rates for business users.
Carbonite also has apps for accessing archived files on iOS, Android and BlackBerry smartphones.
Carbonite's InfoCenter interface has a clear and easy-to-understand view of your backup status. A nice visual touch is that, like the Mozy software, Carbonite places a dot next to every file that will be affected: Yellow means it's ready to be backed up, while green shows that it's already been backed up. It lacks a log of its operations, though.
By default, Carbonite backs up only your desktop, music, document, photo, settings, email and video files. You can add other specific files, but Carbonite's software balks at including system, Windows and program files.
Carbonite can back up files continuously or on a schedule. The operation remains in the background; a progress bar slowly fills up, giving an estimate of how much time remains.
Once the backup is finished, any archived file can be recovered on the host computer or with a smartphone. Files remain accessible from Carbonite's online server for 30 days after they've been deleted from your computer's hard drive.
Carbonite colocates its server equipment at several data centers throughout the U.S. According to its site, the service uses RAID techniques on its server disks to make sure that a burned-out hard drive in their farm won't take your backups with it. The system uses 128-bit encryption for both online transfers and data storage; it's the least sophisticated security system of the five services I looked at.
When I performed an initial backup, Carbonite copied 655 files (135MB) and moved them to the company's cloud storage in 27 minutes and 31 seconds.
It was able to incrementally back up 25MB of material in 1 minute and 9 seconds, just slightly slower than CrashPlan.
Searching for a lost file took 1.3 seconds and the file was recovered in 1 minute and 6.8 seconds, putting it in the middle of the pack. I also created a backup on a 250GB external drive, which took 3 hours and 16 minutes (the drive needs to be reformatted first).
Carbonite allows you to choose the order in which files are recovered so that you can keep working or playing while other files are downloaded. There is a 15-day free trial period.
I like the unlimited storage that Carbonite provides, and the basic service is inexpensive at $59 a year. However, the fact that you can't do a complete online backup (although you can mirror your files to an external drive) is disappointing.
CrashPlan stands out from the competition in terms of the variety of options it offers users. To begin with, its client is available for a wide variety of computers, from Macs and Windows PCs to Linux and Solaris systems. There are also apps for accessing stored data for Apple iOS and Android devices, but not for BlackBerry phones.
There are also a number of different plans. The free version actually doesn't offer online backup, but instead allows you to back up to other computers -- for example, a system belonging to a friend, or a system at work. It's an interesting twist that can lessen the chances that your data will disappear, but might put it in too many hands. I'm not sure I'd want my data sitting on someone else's computer, although CrashPlan does encrypt it.
The paid versions allow you to back up your data to CrashPlan's online servers. The CrashPlan + service that I used offers unlimited storage for $50 a year; there's also a plan that limits capacity to 10GB for half as much, but both are limited to a single computer.
The unlimited family package gives you backup for up to 10 computers for $120 a year. The company offers a full-featured trial for 30 days.
CrashPlan has a central interface that shows the status of your backups and how many files are queued up; it also has places to click for restoring files, for determining where the backups will be stored and for making configuration changes. CrashPlan doesn't visually mark files for backing up as Mozy and Carbonite do. The software does have an excellent log that shows all tasks performed.
By default, the software gathers up key personal files like music, video and desktop files for backing up, but ignores Windows and system files. However, you can manually add any file type to the backup, including system files.
After its initial backup, CrashPlan continually looks for changes in your system's files and adds those that it finds to its next backup. CrashPlan does this behind the scenes as you use your computer; I didn't notice any slowdown of my system as a result. By default, the system will send backups every 15 minutes, but that interval can be changed; you can do an incremental backup at any time as well.
CrashPlan has a screen that shows a progress bar with an estimate of how long it will take to finish (except, of course, when it is working in the background). The service can also back up the contents of an external hard drive.
CrashPlan uses 448-bit key Blowfish encryption (the free version uses 128-bit Blowfish encryption). Unlike the other applications reviewed here, which have deadlines after which deleted files are removed, files backed up to CrashPlan and then deleted from your hard drive are never removed unless you do it manually, according to the company.
CrashPlan colocates its servers at several data centers throughout the U.S., but doesn't mirror backups.
Uploading backup data to CrashPlan's servers was slow -- it stopped several times during the process, once for a little over an hour. As a result, it took 4 hours and 7 minutes to save 321MB during the initial backup.
Archiving the entire C: drive took four days, 20 hours and five minutes, four times longer than the next closest service, Norton Online Backup.
I was able to back up the system's C: drive to a 250GB Western Digital external drive in 2 hours and 6 minutes, midway between Norton Online Backup and Mozy.
The service's ability to perform a 25MB incremental backup took just 1 minute and 3 seconds, the fastest of this gang of five. Like the others, CrashPlan searched for a lost file quickly, at 2.3 seconds, and restored it 35.6 seconds.
CrashPlan offers some innovative services and the ability to save your backups on other computers. However, uploading backups to CrashPlan is slow, which can be a problem.
With a name like MozyHome, you'd expect a warm and fuzzy backup service that's aimed at nontechnical types who don't want complicated backup choices. In fact, Mozy should satisfy the needs of technophobes and tech experts alike.
The service has software for Windows PCs and Macs (but not Linux systems). It also has smartphone apps for accessing archived data; the apps work on iOS and Android devices, but not BlackBerry phones.
The software can be accessed from a task tray icon, which leads to several windows for overall status, for settings and for restoring data. It all works well together and Mozy keeps a detailed log file of what the software has done.
Like Carbonite, Mozy shows what files are going to be backed up with small yellow dots and those that have already been backed up with green dots. This makes visually scanning for backup status easy.
Online backups can be scheduled for any time you want (for example, during lunch or overnight). The default backup settings archive video, music, document, email and contact files, browser favorites and financial records; however, it can handle individual files or the entire drive, including system files. It can back up data on an external hard drive. You can restore anything from a single file to the entire backup; files stay available for 30 days after being deleted.
Mozy recently announced its new Dropbox-like Stash service, which allows users to access active files from multiple computers. There is also a business version called MozyPro that offers a number of prices, depending on how many licenses you need and how much data you plan to store.
Mozy offers its users the choice of using either 448-bit Blowfish encryption or 256-bit AES encryption; its hardware is colocated at server farms in Europe and the U.S. Instead of mirroring data, Mozy uses Distributed Reed-Solomon error correction, which divides the data into 12 data blocks that are spread around its servers. Should a drive go dead, Mozy only needs nine of those pieces to recover the entire file.
Mozy's default backup stored 160MB of files from my test machine in 2 hours, 8 minutes and 54 seconds.
It was able to transfer and save the entire C: drive in 22 hours and 11 minutes, three days faster than with CrashPlan but six hours slower than with Norton Online Backup.
A 25MB incremental backup took 5 minutes and 7 seconds. I was able to search for a lost file in 4.6 seconds, the slowest time of the applications reviewed here but still acceptable. The file was recovered in 34.8 seconds.
I was able to back up the entire system to an external hard drive in 20 minutes and 17 seconds -- by far, the quickest of the group; the drive didn't need to be reformatted.
The company once offered unlimited storage; currently, it charges $66 a year for 50GB for one computer. Each additional system costs another $2 a month. There's also a 125GB plan that includes backups from up to three computers for $110 per year. Mozy gives you up to 2GB of storage space free, so if you don't have much to back up, you can do it on the cheap.
Overall, MozyHome does an excellent job of keeping your most precious digital possessions safe, secure and ready to be restored in the event of a computer disaster.
Norton Online Backup
Although Symantec is better known for its security and virus-protection programs, Norton Online Backup is also part of the company's arsenal.
Norton is available for Macs and PCs, but not Linux systems. The vendor also offers Norton Connect, a beta iOS app that lets you download archived files. (Symantec had a similar Android app that it pulled from the market last October; the site says that it is working on a new version.)
Norton's home screen lets you back up your system immediately, restore files, download files or change the settings. A log lets you know the details as well as displays a green check mark or a red X that shows whether the task was completed.
As is the case with the other applications reviewed here, Norton's default settings copy only basic files, including contacts, financial files, pictures, browser favorites and documents. The interface includes check boxes to quickly add music, email and video. You can add any folder or file manually; you can also copy your entire drive, including system files. The program provides a progress bar and displays the percentage of the task that's been completed, the amount of data and the number of files being moved.
While the software can back up a connected external hard drive, it won't back up the system to an external hard drive. Backups can be scheduled, but the program doesn't support continuous backups of files as they are saved.
At any time, you can restore a lost file or rebuild the entire computer from the stored online data. Deleted files stay active on Norton's servers for 90 days.
In addition to restoring any stored file, Norton provides a great way to share material with colleagues or friends via email. All you do is select the file and the service emails a link to anyone; the process can be password-protected.
Norton colocates its servers at several data centers in the U.S. and the U.K. and uses a 128-bit SSL encryption key for online transfers and 256-bit AES encryption on its servers. Data is mirrored at two locations, just in case there's a failure or disaster.
The initial default backup amounted to 1,226 files (190MB); it was completed in just 1 hour, 2 minutes and 7 seconds.
It took Norton 15 hours and 21 minutes to archive the contents of the system's C: drive, six times faster than CrashPlan took to do the same thing.
I was able to perform an incremental backup with 25MB of data in 7 minutes and 23 seconds and the service was able to locate a deleted file in 2.7 seconds. I recovered it in 1 minute and 45 seconds.
Norton Online Backup has a 30-day free trial period; after that, it costs $50 for 25GB. There's no unlimited capacity plan, but a single subscription can accommodate five separate computers, something others charge an extra $2 or $5 for.
The software may be showing its age, but the service is fast and rock-solid.
This story shows the bifurcation of the online backup business these days. Some applications let you archive only your photos, music, videos and other personal files; others can save the entire contents of your hard drive.
Of the two applications in the first category, both have positives and negatives. Backblaze does a thorough initial backup but doesn't offer mobile apps that let you grab files from a smartphone while you're on the go. In contrast, Carbonite has apps for iOS, Android and BlackBerry devices, but it is the most expensive service that I looked at.
Three of the five backup services that I looked at could copy the entire hard drive to online servers, but they differed in many ways. Norton Online Backup lacks recent creature comforts, like the ability to augment online services with a local backup on an external hard drive. By comparison, CrashPlan seems to have it all, but its full system upload at more than four days was too slow to be practical.
That leaves Mozy Home as the winner. It may not be perfect, but it offers a great mix of economy, security and features. I just wish that it kept deleted files forever.
How we tested
To measure how these online backup services compare, I downloaded each application and checked out its features. I performed backups and updates and restored a variety of files on an Acer Veriton M4 desktop PC with Windows 7 Professional. I began by backing up the system using Norton Ghost 15 with a LaCie 2big USB 3.0 external hard drive.
After getting familiar with the service, I timed how long it took to perform an initial backup of the system using the service's default settings. I noted the connection speed and how much data was moved. Because the amount of data varied depending on what types of files the application handled, the timing here is more a point of information than a way to compare the services.
If the application supported it, I then did a full backup of the system's C: drive -- a total of 35.4GB of data.
To see how each handles new data, I added a folder containing 25MB of assorted files, including images, video and Office files, to the system. I timed how long it took to make the incremental backup.
To mimic what happens if data is lost or corrupted, I then deleted a 10MB WMV video file and timed how long it took to search for the file with the online backup system. Lastly, I timed how long it took to restore the lost file.
When I was done, I restored the system to its original specs and repeated the sequence with the next service.
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